Exercise 9: Networking 101

With Jesse Maxwell Perez, Jodie Quach, and Stanley Tsai.

A computer network is a system of communication established between machines (in this case, computers) which allow them to exchange data to each other. The connect between computers can either be wireless (internet) or via cable. The most famous computer network is the internet. When a computer is connected to another computer, or the internet, it becomes a “node”. A node is an attachment to the network where it can send, receive, forward, and perform other functions of information. One example of a node would be a router which is connected to a computer, which connects everything to the internet. The router is in charge of downloading and uploading information to and from the computer and internet. Another example of a computer network would be the connection of your computer to your printer. Some may have it set up where they share the same wifi, or USB cable.

LAN) Is a Local Area Network. It is a computer network of a small, close proximity nature. They tend to be small router with several ethernet cable ports. The LAN device can connect several computers to a shared network.

WAN) Is a Wide Area Network. It is a network which reaches a bigger scale. WANs operate on the function of smaller LAN networks. The internet, for example is a WAN computer network.

Internet) In simple terms, it is a network of networks. It is a worldwide network consisting of LANs, WANs, satellites, etc. This network supports various methods and facilities in order to download (receive) and upload (send) information from one node to another

Intranet) It is an internal computer network inside of the internet. Where it could be a school portal network which is connected to the internet. Because an intranet is define by its own protocol, it can host private websites or information accessible only to those connected to the respective intranet. It’s restrictions from being accessed globally are defined using software on the web.

MAN) Metropolitan area network. Is a computer network where the nodes interact with each other inside the same metropolitan. A MAN is generally operated by a respective local corporation inside the metropolitan.

VPN) Virtual private network. It “extends a private network across a public network”, such as the internet. It’s similar to WAN where the network can be accessed across a larger area. It also allows users to connect to a private network even if they are not in close proximity to the network itself, it can be accessed using secure protocols. They can access that private company network using the public internet network as the medium.

Peer-to-peer) It’s a network system which the computer, or nodes, communicate with each other directly using a medium such as the internet. These nodes (peers) can send and receive information to each other. The connection between peers are direct, and not centralized, where the connection is literally from computer to computer.

Server-based) It’s a similar network system which peers connect to each other using a centered node for communication. The centralization allows many nodes to connect with each other via requesting permission from the central server.

The client and server are the frameworks of the internet. Similar to their names, a server is something that provides a service to a machine. A client is the machine that requests the service. For example, the internet use a client and service infrastructure. The client is the computers where the user requests information or a service from the server. The client and server are connected by the internet and the service provided through the web.

The OSI model is a seven layer system that defines how a network transmits and receives messages within a network. The layers are organized by hierarchy from highest to lowest: application, presentation, session, transport, network, data link and physical.

  • Application contains functions such as directory services, electronic messaging, file and printer access and resource sharing.

  • Presentation is known to be the “translator” for the network as this is the layer that formats the information to be used in the application process.

  • The session layer is what enables two application processes to establish, use and terminate a connection.

  • The transport functions are simply to transport information accurately with no errors, losses or duplications. Messages are often broken down into smaller pieces of information to be transported. Once it reaches the destination, it is reassembled to the original message.

  • The network decides the path where the data should go based on the conditions, priority and other factors.

  • The data link layer transfers data  frames .It is the link  between two nodes.

  • Electrical, mechanical and functional are elements to the physical layer of the OSI model.The physical layer is responsible for  the  transmission and reception.

The five network architecture is called the Transmission Control Protocol (TCP). They include, process and application, transport, internet, network, and physical.

  • Process and application provides services to to users and programs

  • Transport provides a link between two nodes

  • The internet, also known as Network layer, is responsible for network addressing.

  • Network, also known as the Data link layer, is responsible for what the Ip will run over.

  • Physical refers to all hardware under the network layer.

Protocols → Internet protocol refers to the starting letters of the address. “http” or “https” are normally the protocol letters for the internet. The protocol will always end with “://” to signify the end of the protocol.

TCP/IP → TCP is Transmission Control Protocol and IP is Internet Protocol. TCP is the more reliable way of passing on information on email or transferring files. It connects through computers using the internet, intranet or local area network.

FTP → which stands for File Transfer Protocol. This will transfers files using the internet as its access to connect with other machines. It will remember information for accounts such as a “clear-text sign in protocol” when signing in.

HTTP → HTTP is an internet protocol, means HyperText Transfer Protocol. HTTP is the world wide fundamental communication protocol, as for a website to be seen on the world wide web, is must begin its address with “http” or “https” or it will not be able to be coded onto the internet.

Telnet → Telnet is a network protocol that transfers information from your device to other devices, such that they need to know. For example: When changing a password on the internet, the password needs to be set if you were to log onto the same account on a another computer.

A router is a device that helps information flow from network to network as well as keeps devices attached to the internet service. A router can help an individual set up a LAN (local area network) or a WLAN (wireless local area network). With a router used a gateway for internet access, it would be impossible to be in a wireless range without a router acting a connector and secure hold for devices with internet connection. A router is usually not as fast as a physical internet connection because it works over waves and satellites, and not with electricity.

A firewall refers to the security system (hardware or software), built into the computer that monitors mass information that comes into the hardware and software of the computer, and has the power to block information from entering the computer, protecting the device from any harm that might be entering into the machine, and can only be avoided by using the firewall to detect the harmful information.

An FTP or File Transfer Protocol and a webserver are very similar yet also different. A web server is something that we use daily on web 2.0. Web servers transfer information back and forth between our computers and the network to allow us to view their pages. This information isn’t saved into our computer’s memory but is held there until the pages are changed. A FTP is different because it is a direct connection between file servers. A two way exchange is created from both the computer and the server and are saved into both memories.

And IP address stands for Internet Protocol. Every computer and internet service has a address of their own. These addresses are codes that allow servers to know where to send information, and computer to send information back to servers themselves. These addresses allow for basic features such as search engines and Facebook. You can also upload specific files using file sharing servers such as Mediafire or FileShare, using the same process.

File transferring can be done in two ways. The first way, is simply receiving information from a server. For this you will need internet access, and a device that can connect to the internet. Any browser that is opened is automatically connected to a homepage. And that’s it, that homepage’s server has sent you its information and allowed it for your computer to access it. For the second, you will need to create an FTP. You can do this by downloading a program like Serv-U on both computers where you want to transfer files from.

1)      Create a login.

2)      Agree to all registrations.

3)      Enter the IP Address of the other computer you want to transfer to.

4)      Test the connection through the program.

5)      Voila.

Sources:

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Computer_network

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Node_(networking)

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Local_area_network

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wide_area_network

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Internet

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Intranet

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Metropolitan_area_network

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vpn

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Peer-to-peer

http://www.differencebetween.net/technology/difference-between-client-and-server/

http://support.microsoft.com/kb/103884

https://www.ischool.utexas.edu/~l38613dw/readings/NotesOnInterconnection.html

http://netforbeginners.about.com/od/h/f/what-is-a-computer-protocol-http.htm

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Transmission_Control_Protocol

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File_Transfer_Protocol

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hypertext_Transfer_Protocol

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Telnet

http://www.webopedia.com/DidYouKnow/Hardware_Software/2005/router.asp

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Firewall_(computing)

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