Exercise 9: Networking 101

With Jesse Maxwell Perez, Jodie Quach, and Stanley Tsai.

A computer network is a system of communication established between machines (in this case, computers) which allow them to exchange data to each other. The connect between computers can either be wireless (internet) or via cable. The most famous computer network is the internet. When a computer is connected to another computer, or the internet, it becomes a “node”. A node is an attachment to the network where it can send, receive, forward, and perform other functions of information. One example of a node would be a router which is connected to a computer, which connects everything to the internet. The router is in charge of downloading and uploading information to and from the computer and internet. Another example of a computer network would be the connection of your computer to your printer. Some may have it set up where they share the same wifi, or USB cable.

LAN) Is a Local Area Network. It is a computer network of a small, close proximity nature. They tend to be small router with several ethernet cable ports. The LAN device can connect several computers to a shared network.

WAN) Is a Wide Area Network. It is a network which reaches a bigger scale. WANs operate on the function of smaller LAN networks. The internet, for example is a WAN computer network.

Internet) In simple terms, it is a network of networks. It is a worldwide network consisting of LANs, WANs, satellites, etc. This network supports various methods and facilities in order to download (receive) and upload (send) information from one node to another

Intranet) It is an internal computer network inside of the internet. Where it could be a school portal network which is connected to the internet. Because an intranet is define by its own protocol, it can host private websites or information accessible only to those connected to the respective intranet. It’s restrictions from being accessed globally are defined using software on the web.

MAN) Metropolitan area network. Is a computer network where the nodes interact with each other inside the same metropolitan. A MAN is generally operated by a respective local corporation inside the metropolitan.

VPN) Virtual private network. It “extends a private network across a public network”, such as the internet. It’s similar to WAN where the network can be accessed across a larger area. It also allows users to connect to a private network even if they are not in close proximity to the network itself, it can be accessed using secure protocols. They can access that private company network using the public internet network as the medium.

Peer-to-peer) It’s a network system which the computer, or nodes, communicate with each other directly using a medium such as the internet. These nodes (peers) can send and receive information to each other. The connection between peers are direct, and not centralized, where the connection is literally from computer to computer.

Server-based) It’s a similar network system which peers connect to each other using a centered node for communication. The centralization allows many nodes to connect with each other via requesting permission from the central server.

The client and server are the frameworks of the internet. Similar to their names, a server is something that provides a service to a machine. A client is the machine that requests the service. For example, the internet use a client and service infrastructure. The client is the computers where the user requests information or a service from the server. The client and server are connected by the internet and the service provided through the web.

The OSI model is a seven layer system that defines how a network transmits and receives messages within a network. The layers are organized by hierarchy from highest to lowest: application, presentation, session, transport, network, data link and physical.

  • Application contains functions such as directory services, electronic messaging, file and printer access and resource sharing.

  • Presentation is known to be the “translator” for the network as this is the layer that formats the information to be used in the application process.

  • The session layer is what enables two application processes to establish, use and terminate a connection.

  • The transport functions are simply to transport information accurately with no errors, losses or duplications. Messages are often broken down into smaller pieces of information to be transported. Once it reaches the destination, it is reassembled to the original message.

  • The network decides the path where the data should go based on the conditions, priority and other factors.

  • The data link layer transfers data  frames .It is the link  between two nodes.

  • Electrical, mechanical and functional are elements to the physical layer of the OSI model.The physical layer is responsible for  the  transmission and reception.

The five network architecture is called the Transmission Control Protocol (TCP). They include, process and application, transport, internet, network, and physical.

  • Process and application provides services to to users and programs

  • Transport provides a link between two nodes

  • The internet, also known as Network layer, is responsible for network addressing.

  • Network, also known as the Data link layer, is responsible for what the Ip will run over.

  • Physical refers to all hardware under the network layer.

Protocols → Internet protocol refers to the starting letters of the address. “http” or “https” are normally the protocol letters for the internet. The protocol will always end with “://” to signify the end of the protocol.

TCP/IP → TCP is Transmission Control Protocol and IP is Internet Protocol. TCP is the more reliable way of passing on information on email or transferring files. It connects through computers using the internet, intranet or local area network.

FTP → which stands for File Transfer Protocol. This will transfers files using the internet as its access to connect with other machines. It will remember information for accounts such as a “clear-text sign in protocol” when signing in.

HTTP → HTTP is an internet protocol, means HyperText Transfer Protocol. HTTP is the world wide fundamental communication protocol, as for a website to be seen on the world wide web, is must begin its address with “http” or “https” or it will not be able to be coded onto the internet.

Telnet → Telnet is a network protocol that transfers information from your device to other devices, such that they need to know. For example: When changing a password on the internet, the password needs to be set if you were to log onto the same account on a another computer.

A router is a device that helps information flow from network to network as well as keeps devices attached to the internet service. A router can help an individual set up a LAN (local area network) or a WLAN (wireless local area network). With a router used a gateway for internet access, it would be impossible to be in a wireless range without a router acting a connector and secure hold for devices with internet connection. A router is usually not as fast as a physical internet connection because it works over waves and satellites, and not with electricity.

A firewall refers to the security system (hardware or software), built into the computer that monitors mass information that comes into the hardware and software of the computer, and has the power to block information from entering the computer, protecting the device from any harm that might be entering into the machine, and can only be avoided by using the firewall to detect the harmful information.

An FTP or File Transfer Protocol and a webserver are very similar yet also different. A web server is something that we use daily on web 2.0. Web servers transfer information back and forth between our computers and the network to allow us to view their pages. This information isn’t saved into our computer’s memory but is held there until the pages are changed. A FTP is different because it is a direct connection between file servers. A two way exchange is created from both the computer and the server and are saved into both memories.

And IP address stands for Internet Protocol. Every computer and internet service has a address of their own. These addresses are codes that allow servers to know where to send information, and computer to send information back to servers themselves. These addresses allow for basic features such as search engines and Facebook. You can also upload specific files using file sharing servers such as Mediafire or FileShare, using the same process.

File transferring can be done in two ways. The first way, is simply receiving information from a server. For this you will need internet access, and a device that can connect to the internet. Any browser that is opened is automatically connected to a homepage. And that’s it, that homepage’s server has sent you its information and allowed it for your computer to access it. For the second, you will need to create an FTP. You can do this by downloading a program like Serv-U on both computers where you want to transfer files from.

1)      Create a login.

2)      Agree to all registrations.

3)      Enter the IP Address of the other computer you want to transfer to.

4)      Test the connection through the program.

5)      Voila.

Sources:

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Computer_network

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Node_(networking)

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Local_area_network

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wide_area_network

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Internet

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Intranet

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Metropolitan_area_network

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vpn

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Peer-to-peer

http://www.differencebetween.net/technology/difference-between-client-and-server/

http://support.microsoft.com/kb/103884

https://www.ischool.utexas.edu/~l38613dw/readings/NotesOnInterconnection.html

http://netforbeginners.about.com/od/h/f/what-is-a-computer-protocol-http.htm

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Transmission_Control_Protocol

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File_Transfer_Protocol

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hypertext_Transfer_Protocol

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Telnet

http://www.webopedia.com/DidYouKnow/Hardware_Software/2005/router.asp

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Firewall_(computing)

Analysis

Article 1:

Envisioning nanotechnology: New media and future-oriented stakeholder dialogue

This article focuses on how to deal with the future of possible technologies, in this case, nanotechnology. Even though it applies to this specific field, the questions, concerns, and methodologies addressing the application of preparing for and visualizing the future is relatable to all disciplines. On that note, it can be safe to say that nanotechnology will be a dominant technology of the future because of it’s application, size, and functionality. The entire approach is through the project titled “NanoFutures” where it is a website designed to spark debate, dialogue, and discussion regarding the possible futures of nanotechnology. The article states that collaboration and participation from external sources (such as non professionals) is extremely beneficial in the development of any field. Where people generate their own respective responses which may give some more insight than if simply professionals were working amongst themselves. Also, technologies are not limited in being shaped by functionality, they can be designed with success through social values. To visualize the future, according to the article, a constructive method would be to come up with many plausible scenarios and see what the impact may be to certain audiences. When it comes to technology, it appears that the future of it may rest on “themes of of human identity, enhancement, and biology” (Selin, 175). NanoFutures posted several possible future technologies on their website (such as a scanner implanted in the body to monitor protein levels to then report if any possible diseases will develop), and the public was able to discuss it. The responses from these users were able to generate dialogues regarding the ethics, costs, applications, and much more without leaving it strictly to the professionals.

Article 2:

New Media, Culture and Society

This article deals with the relations between various forms of media and their impact on different cultures. While this article mainly focuses on statistics relating to India’s development with the media world, the concept of media is challenged as a whole. Because of mobility and the internet, information can be access across the entire globe. This results in the convergence of many cultures into one dominant cyber culture. As with any reaction, the consequences can be that of positive or negative, depending how you look at it. While information becomes centralized into the virtual space of the web, societies and cultures are beginning to witness a decentralization of commercialization, technology, and control. The article has a great way to explain this, where current humans, homo-sapiens, will eventually evolve into “robo-sapiens” (Ravi, 485). Where the controversy behind the advancement of technologies and media is, will technology in time turn against us? That being said, who or what has done the damage (if it so happens) to culture? Would it the technology itself, or the humans who developed that technology? The continuous growth of internet participation gives identity a whole new meaning. New media is literally destroying unique identities, where anyone can be anyone posting anything to the world. This article ends on a pessimistic note, suggesting the future of new media might not be as beneficial as we expect.

 

These articles both deal with the possible future and impact new media may have on the world. One looks at the development of technology as open-source, where the public is in control over it’s application. On the other hand, the other evaluates that media will develop into something humans will not have control over. Which may incidentally be true, if you were to really analyze the nanotechnology futures. Most of the plausible technologies addressed in the article by Selin deal with control over human resources with the help of artificial intelligence. The other article would define this as technology advancement we are no longer able to keep up with. However, both articles address the issue of the person, the individual. Because these media technologies are developed by us, we do have control over their function for the time being. That being said, it is our responsibility to produce technology that will achieve a responsible and constructive future. Giving power to the people, allowing the public to collaborate with visions and possibilities for the future have time and time again proven beneficial towards the advancement of technologies.

 

Sources:

Ravi, B. K. “New Media, Culture and Society.” Academic Research International 2.2 (2012): 479-94. ProQuest. Web. 29 Oct. 2013.

Selin, Cynthia, and Rebecca Hudson. “Envisioning Nanotechnology: New Media and Future-oriented Stakeholder Dialogue.” Technology in Society 32.3 (2010): 173-82. ScienceDirect. Web. 19 Oct. 2013.

Exercise 8: New Media Innovators

With Jesse Maxwell Perez, Jodie Quach, and Stanley Tsai.

Artists that are considered to work in the New Media genre are those who tie new technologies into their art. They use a combination of modern mediums as well as applications. The artists below share their own unique approach to media, where they were each considered a New Media artist by their own means. For example, music may not be considered a new media application today, because it has been around since humans could drum up a beat. However, genres of music change and develop with cultures. Such is the case with with Vivaldi, his style of music was quite “avant-guarde” for his time.

As far as Kutiman’s “Thru-You” goes, it is a video of several musicians producing music together. However, they are not working directly with one another. Compiling the talents of several musicians can produce a sound which can never be achieved alone. These videos taken from the internet have a certain fluidity to them, as if they are interacting with each other, even though they are of completely separate natures. This 21st century new media piece combines aspects of collaboration and taking someone’s work and applying it into something else.

Antonio Vivaldi is a well known musician, whose intricate classical music has been shared around the world. His piece, “Four Seasons”, is lead by a violin, and conveys extremely strong emotions and setting through the upbeat and beautiful melody. The video of this song uses masks as a metaphor of feelings and movements, as they can be hidden or revealed in a different matter. Vivaldi is considered an innovator because he takes his music to the next level of intensity as unseen before.

Eric Whitacre is a well known conductor, broadcaster and public speaker. His most known piece is “Lux Aurumque” which is made up of 185 separate videos synced together to create a virtual choir. This video consists of 185 separate videos of different people in different countries. Eric Whitacre puts a spin on concerts and choirs as he is able to bring 185 strangers together to sing and make music together via the internet. “Lux Aurumque” is considered his ‘ground-breaking’ work.

At the age of 48, Evelyn Glennie has become one of the most influential virtuoso percussionists. What makes her so inspirational and influential at the same time comes from that fact that is she deaf. Glennie is able to create music just through feel, and sight, and demonstrates to everyone that music isn’t just sounds to your ears. This video demonstrates her ability to speak and also play various types of percussion instruments. Without the ability to hear the sounds she’s making, Glennie is still able to inspire her audience to take their other senses and feel the sound through different ways. She innovates new ways to experience love for music and sound.

The music produced by John Cage is mesmerizing  as the piece analyzed, Dream created in 1948. John Cage is one of the more influential media artists, because of the beauty and composition of his music. He was ahead of his time, his atmospherical music is gifted, technically and musically. He was a great influence for modern dance, as his affiliation with choreographer, and partner, Merce Cunningham, as they were able to work together to jump ideas off each other and improve the works of eachother.

 

Sources:

http://thru-you.com/#/videos/1/

http://ericwhitacre.com/biography

http://www.evelyn.co.uk/evelyn-glennie.html

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/John_Cage

Exercise 7: SEO

With Jesse Maxwell Perez, Jodie Quach, and Stanley Tsai.

Search engines are to find web pages on the internet, hence indexing them. The term “web indexing” is the process of finding web pages using a search engine like Google. Some search engines store the data on their own server or “corpus” (online storage of texts). Search engines not storing the indexes themselves use caches to save the information to their system. Caches, in regards to search engines are sort of like left-behind information of searches where the information is temporarily stored on a system or computer to facilitate and optimize future searches, because it retains some of the information. That is why some browsers recommend to clear caches in order for them to run faster.

Search engines use robots to literally scan web pages for relevance and information pertaining to a search that has been made. The easiest way to index, or find a page is simple HTML text. Because robots cannot scan through images for key terms as easily as tags for a blog post. When a web page is scanned, the information received in then stored in the index for future searches. An index is simply a database of information used for search. Ranking web pages on Google for example is the relevance of information towards the search terms as well as the traffic which the website receives. Web searches use very complex algorithms which determines the order of web pages on the index.

IP addresses can affect search engine optimization, it all depends on the shared IP address versus an independent one. Having a website that shares an IP with a popular, high traffic website will benefit your SERP (Search Engine Ranking Position). However, if you share your IP with a website which is slow and does not produce much traffic, it will affect your site indirectly. That is why there are pros and cons for both sides. Having your own dedicated IP address for your website means you are in control of how fast and where your site is coming from. That can be positive if you have an aptitude for website hosting, design, etc. However, competing with major corporations which specialize in website optimization and already have a high SERP, it will be difficult to bring your name to the top of the list as fast. Also security is an issue for both sides. Starting your web site from scratch, you need to implement your security yourself, whereas a shared IP hosting service may already have some security already in place. On the other hand, that shared IP may not have an adequate security as one you can develop yourself. As you can see, with any issue that may arise towards SEO, having either your own dedicated IP, or using a shared one, they both present good and bad qualities.

Keywords is essential to search engines. They are the main reason why your webpage is in the results of these searches and makes it possible to find your site. People use keywords to find websites that are relevant to the words. If your site contains the words, it is more likely that people will find your page. This will continue as search engines often retain previous searches for future searches. Using keywords in the tags is not enough, to maximize the use of keywords you must use them throughout your site. For example, in the titles, categories and of course, the content.

Search engines are becoming more effective in scanning webpages and like I mentioned previously, tags are not enough anymore, keywords must be used throughout the website in order to attract your intended audience. You can use these keywords in your html tags such as the title. The title html will be used as the title in the search results, When someone shares your link, the title tag will also be the title for the link and this title will attract people with similar interests. You can also use html tags to make your site more convenient for the users. By including links (the <A href=> tag), you can direct the users to different parts of your site making it more efficient and leaving a good impression for the user, encouraging them to revisit.

Robots.txt is acts as a protection online for information that you prefer some viewers not to view. It is simply a note that pops up before entering a site, to warn the viewer that a certain information will be shown. For example, when entering a website that contains inappropriate content, a message will pop up warning you that the inappropriate content is not appropriate for all ages, as it may involve nudity, violence or vulgar language. “You cannot prevent thieves from coming in but the good guys will not open to door and enter” (Webconfs.com).

By using tags and categories, a blog is more available and open for the world to search and evaluate. The use of an effective title cane easily vary the search results because each key word in the title will pop up. “When you begin thinking about a post’s tot;e. you shouldn’t select the most competitive keywords as your main keyword.” This being said, you also do not want to have irrelevant post titles, tags, or categories because this will be harder to narrow down what your blog is relating to.

Mobile devices have come so far, but they do have their limitations when compared to their computer counterparts. Many mobile phones have limits when it comes to flash player, and as well as video playing. While using SEO on mobiles devices your searches and results are constricted to what can be seen using your device. Many phones, such as the iPhone don’t allow for flash required files to play. These results, which may or may not be important to you; are pushed down past the ones that you are able to read properly. Although they are optimized to see what you need, not everything you could see on the computer will be there. Aside from the mentioned, there is not much different from the SEO we use on our computers.

Twitter is definitely and one of the largest users of SEO. The company itself, but mainly its users use the tweet system to their advantage. Companies, musicians, artists, all use twitter to promote their brand or work throughout twitter. Twitter accounts are made to tweet about their projects, what they do, what they stand for, and anything that relates to them. In turn, if these handles (usernames) become popular enough they show closer to the front page of search engines such as Google or Yahoo. Twitter is a platform fit perfectly for the use of SEO.

 

Sources:

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Search_engine_indexing

http://mimech.com/search-engines/

http://www.zippykid.com/2013/02/21/do-you-need-a-dedicated-ip-address-for-seo/

http://www.wordstream.com/seo-keyword

http://usabilitygeek.com/7-html-guidelines-for-website-usability-seo/

http://www.webconfs.com/what-is-robots-txt-article-12.php

http://blog.talentlms.com/optimize-blog-posts-search-engines/

http://econsultancy.com/ca/blog/62180-how-do-mobile-and-desktop-seo-differ-and-how-can-you-improve-rankings

http://www.searchify.ca/10-twitter-seo-tips/

Summary

The article by Ben Aslinger and Nina B. Huntemann entitled “Digital media studies futures” is the perfect beginning step into the topic of what new media may be in 2060. Without going into great detail, the article discusses many questions which arise when addressing the future of media studies. While media in the past has been seen as a particular technology or medium (film or radio for example), media is now evolving into more of an experience, rather than a medium. Because the technologies and methodologies in regards to media are developing rapidly, it would be irrelevant to define any new media as a single medium. One of the greatest debates for the futures of media studies is it’s relation to academia. In the past, scholars would approach topics with solely a theoretical approach, using case studies. However, because media studies is forever changing, this practice must be changed in order to create a beneficial future for media studies. The highlights how scholars would learn a specific media, however it would then become obsolete before they complete their studies. In addition, scholars were also taught to direct their focus on a few topics rather than a variety. This style of learning needs to change in order to accommodate the vast expansion of media studies. Studying a single discipline is not acceptable anymore, scholars need to become interdisciplinary thinkers. In short, the old ways of learning simply won’t cut it when it comes to media studies. The collaboration of multifaceted thinkers are now in high demand.

 

Source:

Aslinger, Ben, and Nina B. Huntemann. “Digital Media Studies Futures.” Media, Culture & Society 35.1 (2013): 9-12. Sage Publications. Web. 15 Oct. 2013.

Article Reflection

The article “Application of Dervin’s Sense-Making Methodology to media reception situations” by CarrieLynn D Reinhard and Brenda Dervin outlines the debate of the application of virtual spaces. More specifically, virtual worlds. When analyzing these virtual worlds, they do not limit their research to the study of the senses or rather the users. Instead, they make sense of the way everything communicates with each other. How the senses interact with the game or space. They performed various studies which focused on different senses (visual and audio), as well as different spaces (film and console video games). What they found in most of their studies is that the users would create meaning for themselves. Whether it be a gaming world, such as “City of Heroes” or more of a social world, such as “Second Life”. Even though a virtual world would always lack some specifics that of reality. Users would always make the connections themselves in order to proceed with the study (Reinhard and Dervin, 2012).

In relation to class, the presentations of simulation and virtual worlds tie in perfectly with this article. The presentation of simulation was a great transition of the class discussion to hybrid spaces. Simulation and virtual worlds really do go hand in hand. Simulating the senses of the human body is what new media is all about. While these senses are not real, they become a new reality when combined with a virtual space. As if Earth is not big enough for the seven billion of us, we have created countless other virtual worlds which we live, play, and conquer as one. As mentioned in my previous post, it baffles me how some are making a living using the functionality of some virtual spaces. Such as the couple in Second Life who make a living renting out virtual condos, on a virtual island. All of which, is simply information which is stored on servers and exist nowhere in reality. It’s amazing how far humanity has gone, from, well, human experience. The typical human life fifty years ago was straight, linear. You must get an education, get a job, marry, have kids, rinse and repeat. That was simply limited to planet Earth. With many virtual worlds, that linear progression of life may not be the norm in another fifty years. We may have other ‘worlds’ to live on, and I’m not talking about Mars or the Moon.

 

Sources:

Reinhard, CarrieLynn D and Dervin, Brenda. Application of Dervin’s Sense-Making Methodology to media reception situations. Convergence, ISSN 1354-8565, 02/2012, Volume 18, Issue 1, pp. 27 – 48.

Exercise 6: Article Synthesis

My synthesis:

With the exponential growth of internet activity, the issues of online identities may be one of the most heated topics in today’s society. Coming at this topic from different point of views, the ethics of online identities affect all users online. The article “Online identity: is authenticity or anonymity more important?” by Aleks Krotoski on The Guardian’s website details the controversial debate between anonymous and identifiable online profiles. Whereas the article from The Economist, “Businesses, not just governments, have a role to play in helping web users prove their identities” furthers the notion of having governments control online identifications. Finally, with both sides of the online identity covered, The Washington Post’s article by Joyce E. A. Russell, “Career Coach: Know your online identity” reviews how to maintain said online profile.

When it comes to The Guardian’s debate on online identities, it seems to be well fought out. There are many cases which can be used to strengthen both sides. It really comes down to the individual user. Having an authentic online profile can relate the person from the online world to the offline world. Which may grant said person jobs and other experiences. That being said, if something can be traced back to their name which may compromise their integrity, that would ruin their reputation online. That is where anonymity comes into play. Allowing users to create, share, and edit with the online community allows them to make faults without being personally blamed. Unfortunately, the internet is very commercialized and having a flow of anonymous users does not generate as much revenue as does a sea of identifiable and traceable users. In relation to authentic online identities, governments could have the solution with proper online IDs. This would lower fraud, and boost the economy online. One minor detail, most users trust their banks for personal information and not their government. Having a government deal with online identities would give it structure and security. Perhaps having an agreement between website owners and the government can be achieved. We should not forget that the internet is global and government policies and agendas vary depending on the nation and culture.

In short, with all this talk of having an online presence, The Washington Post article details several measures which can be taken to improve one’s online identity. The first thing anyone should do before proceeding is to accept the fact that we all have online identities by now. Whether or not we have a Facebook account, almost every institution creates profiles for it’s users or customers. What should always be considered when developing an online identity is to serve the purpose of the identity. For example remaining professional online, or not mixing up private information with professional. The bottom line is to simply be in control with your online identity. Make sure you know what is being said about yourself, and more importantly, what you are saying about yourself.

Jesse Maxwell Perez’s comments:

You are good with using the evidence from the text to back up your points. You are convincing with your words and make outline the articles clearly.
Only thing I would say in your conclusion:
What should always be considered when developing an online identity is to serve the purpose of the identity. For example remaining professional online, or not mixing up private information with professional.
I get what you are trying to say but maybe phrase it to be one sentence.

Rewrite:

In short, with all this talk of having an online presence, The Washington Post article details several measures which can be taken to improve one’s online identity. The first thing anyone should do before proceeding is to accept the fact that we all have online identities by now. Whether or not we have a Facebook account, almost every institution creates profiles for it’s users or customers. What should always be considered when developing an online identity is to serve the purpose of the identity. The bottom line is to simply be in control with your online identity. Make sure you know what is being said about yourself, and more importantly, what you are saying about yourself.

 

Sources:

http://articles.washingtonpost.com/2011-04-17/business/35231468_1_online-identity-web-site-facebook-account

http://www.theguardian.com/technology/2012/apr/19/online-identity-authenticity-anonymity

http://www.economist.com/news/leaders/21571447-businesses-not-just-governments-have-role-play-helping-web-users-prove-their